Thorndike theory

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Background
Social interaction is a reciprocal relationship between the individual and the individual, the individual with the group and between groups with the group.
Social interaction is a process of communication among the people for the interplay of feelings, thoughts and actions.
Social interaction will take place when an individual’s actions and those actions lead to reactions of other individuals. Social interaction occurs when two or more people facing each other, working together, talking, shaking hands or even be competition and conflict.
Education is suatau process of personality development. VISION is the realization of the national education system of education as a social institution is strong and dignified to empower all citizens of Indonesia develop into a quality human being so that they can proactively respond to the challenges and ever-changing times. To reach the achievement of this vision, established a set of principles to serve as the foundation of education in the implementation of educational reform. One of the principles set forth is held education as a process of acculturation and the empowerment of learners that last a lifetime. Social and cultural rights are the two things that can not be separated. The social structure of society and culture is a context, the environment and everything in it will be understood.

CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

A. Social Processes and Social Interaction
Social processes are related in ways that seen when individuals and social groups meet each other and determine the system and bentu-shape relationship, or what would happen if there are changes that cause goyahnya patterns which are superbly life there. Social processes can be defined as the reciprocal influence between the various facets of life together, for example, between social influence upon the political, economic political, economic law, and so on. Social interaction is the key to all social life, because without social interaction there may not be living together.

B. Social interactions as a Key Factor in Social Life
The general form is a social process of social interaction because social interaction is a key condition of social activities. Social interaction is social relations concerning the dynamic relationship between individual people, between human groups, and between those individuals with a group of people. Social interaction between human groups occurred anatra group as a whole and the individual usually does not involve its members.
1. The course of an interaction process based on various factors:

  • Imitation. One positive aspect is that imitation can drive a person to comply with the rules and values prevailing
  • Suggestion. Factor of suggestion takes place when someone gives a view or an attitude that comes from him which was subsequently accepted by the other party.
  • Identification. Identification is actually a tendency or desire within a person to be with others. Identification is more profound than the imitation, as a person’s personality can be formed on the basis of this process.
  • The process of sympathy. Actually is a process by which a person feels attracted to another party. In this process feelings plays a very important, although the main impetus is the desire to understand the sympathy of others and to cooperate with him.

2. The occurrence of the terms of the Social Interaction
Social interaction is a dynamic social relationship, the relationship between individuals, between groups and between individuals and groups. Two terms of social interaction:

  • The existence of social contact (social contact), which can take place in three forms. Ie between individuals, between individuals with the group, between groups. In addition, a contact can also be directly or indirectly. Positive social contacts lead to a partnership, sengangkan negative lead to a conflict or even the same seali not produce a social interaction. A contact can be primary or secondary. Perimer contact occurs when a direct relationship to meet and hold a face to face. Secondary contact requires an intermediary. Secondary can be done directly.
  • The existence of communication, ie who gives meaning to the behavior of others, feeling what you want delivered perassaan person. The person concerned then react to the feelings to be conveyed by that person. With the existence of such communication, attitudes and feelings of a human group or individual can be known by other groups or other people. It was then a reaction to the material to determine what it does.

3. The forms of Social Interaction
Gillin and Gillin held classifying forms of social interaction. According to them, there are two kinds of social processes that arise as a result of social interaction:

a. Associative processes that

(1) Cooperation (Cooperation)
A joint venture between individuals or groups of people to achieve a common goal or several. Forms of such cooperation can evolve if the person is moved to achieve a common goal and have no awareness that the goal in the future have the benefit of all. Also there should be a pleasant climate in the division of labor and remuneration to be received. In a further development, specific skills needed for those who work together to plan cooperation can be done well.
Cooperation arises because the orientation of the individual against the group (ie its in-group) and the other group (which is his out-group). Cooperation would grow stronger if there are things that offend members / other individuals.
Cooperation function is described by Charles H.Cooley “cooperation arises when people realize they have the same interests and at the same time have enough knowledge and self-control to meet those interests; awareness of the same interests and the organization is an essential facts in a useful partnership ”

(2) Accommodation (Accomodation)
The term accommodation is used in two meanings: assign it to a situation and to assign it to a process. Accommodation refers to the circumstances, there is a balance in the interaction between individuals or groups of humans in relation to social norms and social values prevailing in society. As a process of accommodation refers to the human efforts to defuse a conflict that human efforts to achieve stability.
According to Gillin and Gillin, accommodation is an idea of the real that is used by sociologists to describe a process in which social relationships is tantamount to adaptation in biology. That is, as a process by which individuals or groups of people who initially conflicting orient oneself to overcome tensions. Accommodation is a way to resolve conflict without destroying the opponent so the opponent does not lose his personality.
Accommodation goals may vary according to the situation at hand, namely:
a) To reduce conflict between people or groups of humans as a result of disagreement.
b) Prevent the explosion of a conflict for a time or temporary basis.
c) Allows for cooperation among social groups who live apart due to social factors psychological and cultural, as seen in the community who knew the caste system.
d) Pursue fusion of separate social groups.

(3) assimilation (assimilation)
Assimilation is a social process in the advanced stage. He was characterized by efforts to reduce the differences that exist between individuals or groups of people and also includes efforts to enhance the unity of action, attitude, and mental processes by looking at the interests and common goals.
The assimilation process occurs when there is:
a) human groups of different cultures.
b) The individual as a citizen of the group was hanging out with each other directly and intensively for a long time so.
c) cultures of human groups that each change and adapt to each other.
Assimilation led to changes in social relations and the interaction patterns and social mores. The latter process is sometimes referred to as acculturation. Changes in customs and patterns of social interaction is sometimes not very important and prominent.

b. Dissociative Process
Dissociative process is often referred to as oppositional proccesses, which is exactly the case with co-operation, can be found in every society, although the shape and direction are determined by cultural and social system in question. Opposition can be interpreted as a way to fight against someone or a group of human beings to achieve certain goals. These patterns are called the opposition as well as the struggle to stay alive (struggle for existence). For the purposes of scientific analysis pengetahan, opposition that dissociative processes are distinguished in three forms, namely:
(1) Competition (Competition)
Rivalry or competition can be interpreted as a social process in which individuals or groups of people are competing for-profit through the areas of life which at one time the center of public attention (both individuals and groups of people) by means of drawing public attention or to sharpen the prejudice that has been there is no use or threat of violence. Competition is possessed of two general types:
a) is personal: An individual, individuals, competing in a gain position.
This type is called a rivalry.
b) Characteristically Not Private: For example, between two large companies that compete for a monopoly in a certain area.
(2) controversy (Contravetion)
Kontravensi in essence is a form of social processes that lie between competition and conflicts or disputes.
(3) conflict (dispute or conflict)
Menydari individuals and groups such as the differences in the characteristics badaniyah, emotional, cultural elements, patterns of behavior, and so on with other parties. These characteristics can sharpen the differences that exist to be a conflict or dispute.
Conflicts can also be a means to achieve a balance between the forces in society. The emergence of conflict is a sign that accommodation had been reached.

B. Education as Social and Cultural Processes
Education is suatau process of personality development. One of the principles set forth is held education as a process of acculturation and the empowerment of learners that last a lifetime.
Indonesia is very heterogeneous society in socio-cultural. Between the social culture of a different area to area. This can be regarded as their distinctiveness. The difference in the way terlatak think, act, behave, their level of development, and their response to various internal and external phenomena of life. To obtain socio-cultural context is to study the results of the study of sociology and anthropology in general and in particular education sosioantropologi. As the phenomena studied by a variety of disciplines: sociology, history, economics, demography, anthropology, astronomy political, and social psychology.
Education is a process of inheritance of cultural values held by a community group. In a civilized society writes of learning resources in addition to face to face in the association also through writings and educational institutions that sought formal seacara. School is a place of culture, because basically the process of learning is a process of acculturation. In this case, the process of acculturation in the school is for students’ academic achievement, to cultivate the attitude, knowledge, skills and traditions that exist within a cultural community, as well as to develop a culture within a community through academic achievement of students.
Acculturation process occurs in the form of inheritance of cultural traditions from one generation to the next generation, and adoption of cultural traditions by those who do not know the culture before. Inheritance of a cultural tradition known as the process of enculturation, while the adoption of a cultural tradition known as the process of acculturation. Both processes lead to the formation of culture in a community.
Acculturation enculturation process usually occurs informally in the family, a community of tribal culture, the culture of a region or community. The process of acculturation enculturation done by parents, or people who are considered senior to the children, or who are considered younger. Manners, customs, skills of a tribe / family are usually passed down to future generations through a process of enculturation.
Meanwhile, the acculturation process usually occurs formally through education. Learning process in school is a formal process of acculturation or acculturation process. Acculturation process is not simply the transmission of culture and cultural adoption, but also cultural change. Someone who does not know, be informed and made aware of the existence of a culture, then the person adopting that culture. For example, someone who is moving to a new place, then learn the language, culture, habits of people in new places, then that person will speak and cultured, and the habit as society at that place.
In terms of symptom-Social Aspects of Education Culture
The definition of facets or aspects of education is the goal or goals that nurtured and cared for and used as guidelines in the implementation of all activities that are educational in accordance with the above view.
There are 10 terms of education that the order can be changed but can not be reduced to correspond to the conditions and situations where the implementation of education will be implemented. Separation of one of the ten is not possible and not only justified but justifiable differences in emphasis.
A. Education is the act of coaching behavior.
Education is the process of coaching behavior so that children learn the act of thinking, feeling and acting more perfect and better than ever. For the purpose of education is directed at the whole personal aspect includes physical, mental, spiritual and moral. So it will grow a personal awareness and responsibility due to the actions.
2. Education is self education.
The institution aims to develop yourself and always use the power of initiative and its activities according to the ability of his conscience. So that the children had the opportunity to learn to take responsibility for kelangusngan education and personal development. This is according to the statement that education is actually educational Tagore himself or herself personally (self education).
3. Educational institutions played in various centers.
Educational task is a task that must be implemented by educational institutions or agencies that are recognized and given the right to life and protected by law. Thus in addition to school education (as an intermediary, a unifying and enhancing the business education), the family also received a public duty to educate people who become members.
4. Education is directed to all aspects of culture and personality.
Educators and educational institutions must recognize the personality and raise the unity of all aspects of culture, here people need training in using kecerdasanya and mutual understanding. Aspects of life have been formulated by Edward Springer as:
Theoretical aspects of the human intellect produces, human sosisal devotee, human aesthetic art, the power of human political, religious and economic power of the human being of humans as well as additional profit by prof. A. Sigit aspects of human love makes a family.
5. Education takes place throughout life (Life Processes).
According to Langeveld critical authority in education so that educational process is limited to the educational process of starting the child begins to understand and recognize the authority samapai own children are subject to the authority that comes from his heart.
6. Education is preparation for the intelligent adjustment to social change.
Reflective and progressive nature of education must continue to deliver value and culture to the natural maturity of the students and to guide the work towards building the future. For that educators must develop an awareness of responsibility and participate in society.

7. Education must serve the entire community.
According to the history of its development, education has two kinds of development, namely (1) education as a servant of the class / classes of society, devoted to the interests of small communities such as skillful Dutch colonial and (2) servant of the masses / all walks of life, dedicated to democratic society without different classes.
8. Education shall be directed kepembinaan ideals of noble life.
If education is inserted into the behavior of human action then education must conform to the purpose of human life, then the purpose of life is determined by the adopted person’s philosophy of life, the educational goals of human life must be rooted in individuals who carry out the philosophy of education. Purposes of human education can not be separated from the purpose of human life that is based on a certain philosophy of life.
9. The soul of education nationalism balanced by the spirit of internationalism.
Education is life coaching a healthy nationalism and reasonable, does not lead to eliminate Chauvinism or Internationalism Nationalism soul. The existence of problems and differences in ideologies that caused three things: the persistence of war, the relative effect of a particular nation’s happiness, but misery for other people and a sense of togetherness in the oppressed nations.
Education aimed at seeking peace and world prosperity and human, for the efforts that lead to it are: fostering a spirit of mutual cooperation between nations, the removal of a narrow nationalism, negation of the doctrine of racial superiority and inferiority, the development of positive attitudes on cooperation, development of political abroad in the principles of consultation and cooperation, increasing the level of mental education, and fostering respect for human life berasaskan democratic governance of individuals, society and the advance of the nation.
The results of the above development will embody three possibilities, namely:
a. International Communism, with the form of super disikuti guided by the satellite states
b. International organizations, with the removal of the super state in which the principles of democratic governance belandaskan relationship
c. Regional cooperation, cooperation in the region and specific goals.
10. Essential element in religious education and formation characteristics of the nation.
It is based on the view that religion is an essential element and source of culture, for the religious education that is not directed at the intellectualist-verbalistis, making religious education as a basic grammar of human life, personal, school and community.
Education is not the same religion with ethics, character education but can not be separated from religion so that it can be said that diagamakan decency. To produce a virtuous man, healthy, free-thinking, perpengetahuan broad and sincere spirit.

CHAPTER III
CLOSING
A. Conclusion
A. Social interaction is social relations concerning the dynamic relationship between individual people, between human groups, and between individuals in human groups.
2. The terms of the interaction is with the soisial social contact and communication.
3. Forms of social interaction involves associative process (cooperation, accommodation, and assimilation) and dissociative (competition, kontravensi, and opposition).
4. Education as a social process of acculturation is the business school culture as a social institution to cultivate attitudes, knowledge, skills and traditions that exist within a cultural community, as well as to develop a culture within a community through the students’ academic achievement by maximizing 10 in terms of education to be implemented in full , namely:
a. Education is the act of coaching behavior.
b. Education is self education.
c. Educational institutions played in various centers.
d. Education is directed to all aspects of culture and personality.
e. Education takes place throughout life (life processes).
f. Education is preparation for the intelligent adjustment to social change.
g. Education must serve the entire masyarakyat.
h. Education shall be directed kepembinaan ideals of noble life.
i. Education balanced with the spirit of nationalism internationalism.
j. Essential element in religious education and formation characteristics of the nation.

REFERENCES
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Ahmad, Abu and Uhbiyati, Nur. Of 2001. Science Education. New York: Rineka Notices.
Chaerudin, dkk.1995. Basic education IPS material 1. New York: Open University.
Faisal, Sanapiah and Yasik, Nur. tt. Sociology of Education. Surayaba: National Business.
Gunawan, H. Ary , 2006. Sociology of Education An Analysis of Various Problem Pendididikan. New York: Rineka Notices.
Hasojo.1984. Introduction to Anthropology. New York: Bina Notices.
Koentjaraningrat.1986. Science Introduction to Anthropology. New York: New Script.
Nasution. , 2004. Sociology of Education. New York: Literacy.
Shomad, Abd. , 2009. Overview of Education Antropoplogi Islam. http://uin-suka.info/enjurnal/index2.php?option=com_content&do-pdf=1&id=88
Soekanto, Soerjono.1989. An Introduction to Sociology. London: King Grafindo Persada.
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/antropologi

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