Learning theory is the foundation of a learning process that guides the establishment of conditions for learning. Learning theory can be defined as the integration of the guiding principles in the design condition for the achievement of educational goals. With the theory of learning will make it easy for teachers to run learning models to be implemented. Many have found a theory of learning which is basically focused achievement of behavior change after the learning process. Learning theory is a science about the conditioning of the learning situation in an attempt to achieve changes in behavior that diharapkan.Teori learn that influence the implementation of learning is a constructivist learning theory and learning theory belajarkonstruktivisme informasi.Teori processing is a theory which states that students should find out for yourself and transform information complex, check the new information with old rules and revise them if the old rules no longer sesuai.Teori learning is a theory of information processing that menitikberatkantentang how the information obtained can be processed by the student with the understanding sendiri.Pemanfaatan freely environment for achieving learning objectives should be given to students, making students more creative look.
B. THEOLOGICAL PROBLEM
Broadly speaking, the discussion of this paper is formulated as follows:
1. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov biography outlining
2. Explain the theory of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov studied by
3. Elaborate experiments Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Classical Conditioning
4. Explain the Pavlov theory application and manifestation of the student learning
A. Biography of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born 14 September 1849 in Ryazan Russia is the village where his father Peter Dmitrievich Pavlov became a pastor. He was educated in church schools and went to the Theological Seminary. Pavlov graduated in medicine in the field of basic physiology. In 1884 he became director of the department of physiology at the Institute of Experimental Medicine and initiate research on the physiology of digestion. Ivan Pavlov won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine field in 1904. His work on the conditioning influence on American psychology Behavioristic. His writing is a Work of Digestive Glands (1902) and Conditioned Reflexes (1927). He died in Leningrad on February 27, 1936. Actually he was not a degree in psychology and he did not want to be called as a psychologist, because he is a graduate physiologist who he thinks is completely fanatik.Cara physiologist way of thinking, even he is anti to psychology because he considered less scientific. In his researches he has always tried to avoid meupun concepts of psychological terms. Nevertheless, the role of Pavlov in psychology is very important, because studies on reflexes will form the basis for the development of psychological behaviorism flow. His view of the most important thing is that psychic activity is actually nothing other than mere reflex circuits. Therefore, to study the activity of the psychic (psychological) we learn enough reflexes alone. Actual view of a character begins another Russian named IM Sechenov. I.M. Pavlov was a lot of influence, then be the basis of the views are by JB Watson in the United States in the flow Behaviorismenya after obtaining the necessary changes.
B. Learning the theory of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov and Experiment
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) was a famous Behavioristic associative conditioning theory of stimulus-response and this is remembered it until now. Classic conditioning (classical conditioning or requirements) is a process that is found through the experiments of Pavlov’s dogs, in which native and neutral stimulus is paired with the conditional stimulus repeatedly giving rise to the desired reaction.
He finds that he can use a neutral stimulus, such as a tone or light to form a behavior (response). Experiments conducted Pavlov and other experts seem to be very affected the view of behaviorism, which one psychiatric symptoms seen from his behavior. This is in accordance with the opinion that the most central Bakker in human life is not just the mind, the role and speak, but her behavior. Thoughts about the job or the new plan will get its true meaning if he did sesuatu.Bertitik starting from the assumption that by using certain stimuli, human behavior can be changed according to what the want. Then Pavlov conducted experiments using animals (dogs) because he considers the animals have in common with humans. However, with all its advantages, is fundamentally different from humans to animals.
Here are the stages of the experiment and an explanation of the image above:
1. The first image. Where is the dog, when given a food (UCS) is an autonomous dog will salivate (UCR).
2. The second picture. If the dog sounded a bell so he does not respond or salivate.
3. Third. images in this experiment is given a dog food (UCS) after being given a bell (CS) in advance, so the dog would salivate (the UCR) due to feeding.
4. The fourth picture. Once treatment is done repeatedly, then when the dog heard the bell (CS) without being offered food, the dog will autonomously provide a response drooling from his mouth (CR).
In these experiments, how to shape the behavior of the dog so that when the bell is given it will respond to salivate even if no food is given. Because in the beginning (figure 2) any dog does not respond when he heard the sound of the bell.
If the dog is continuously given stimulus in the form of a bell and then salivate without being offered a gift of food. The ability of a conditioned stimulus (bell) to induce a response (salivation) will be lost. This is called extinction or elimination.
Pavlov proposed four experimental events in the process of acquisition and elimination as follows:
1. Not a conditioned stimulus (UCS), an environmental event through an innate ability to cause organismic reflex. Example: food
2. Conditioned stimulus (CS), An event that is neutral environment paired with unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Example: The sound of the bell is in a neutral stimulus paired with a conditioned stimulus is not a food.
3. Not a conditioned response (UCR), a natural reflex induced autonomously or by itself. Example: drooling
4. Respos conditioned (CR), and learned reflexes arising from the merger of CS and U.S.. Example: drooling due to incorporation of the bell with food.
The conclusion from this experiment is that the behavior is actually nothing else than a series of conditioned reflexes, ie reflexes that occur after the process of conditioning (conditioning process) in which the reflexes that had been associated with the unconditioned stimuli was eventually linked with the unconditioned stimuli. In other words, the reflex movements can be learned, can change due to receive training. And thus can be distinguished two kinds of reflexes, the reflexes normal (unconditioned reflex)-salivation when food is delicious and the view of conditional reflex or reflex is learned (conditioned reflex)-salivation due to receive or respond to certain sounds sound.
Of Pavlov’s experiments on dogs learn to produce these laws, including:
1. Law of Respondent Conditioning demanded that the law of habituation. If the two kinds of stimuli presented simultaneously (one of which serves as a reinforcer), then the reflex and other stimulus will increase.
2. Law of Extinction Respondent demanded the extermination of law. If the reflexes that have been strengthened through conditioning Respondent was brought back without presenting reinforcer, then the strength will decrease
Thus it follows from the theory of conditioning learning is a process of change that occurs because of the requirements (conditions), which led to the reaction (response). To make one that we must learn to specified conditions. The most important thing in learning theory is the existence of conditioning exercises that continue (continuous). Preferred preformance of this theory is that learning happens automatically Yeng.
Given the psychology Behavioristic using an experimental approach, the objective refleksiologis Pavlov remains a model of outstanding and unbeatable.
C. Application of Theory in Everyday Life
Adherents of this theory say that all human behavior is also none other than the result of conditioning. That is the result rather than exercises or practices reacts to the terms of certain stimulants or stimulant-experienced in his life. The learning process described by Pavlov as it consists of the formation of associations between stimuli and reflexive responses. Pavlov was the basis of the present invention, according to J.B. Watson was given the term Behaviorism. Watson argues that human behavior must be studied objectively. He rejected the idea of mentalistic related to the innate and instinctive. Watson uses the theory of Classical Conditioning for all concerned with learning. Psychologists generally support the mechanistic process. That is the environmental events will automatically generate a response. Learning process that moves with the overall view of the situation to the segment (units of language that are abstracted from the unity of speech or text) a particular language. The material presented is similar to the method of said hearing.
It turned out that in everyday life there is the same situation as in dogs. For example, the sound track of the ice cream seller who traveled from house to rumah.Awalnya may sound familiar, but after the ice cream pejual often passed by, then the tone of the song can publish saliva during the day let alone a panas.Bayangkan, if not No song is how tired the salesman peddling his wares shouting. Another example is the sound of the bell in the classroom for the markers of time or the queue at the bank. Without realizing it, a process of marking something that distinguishes the sounds of the traders of food (salad, ice, fried rice, dumplings) are often passed in the house, bell-grade recess or after school and queuing at the bank without having to stand lama.Contohlain adalahuntuk add attachment to your partner, if you have a spouse who “really like (UCR)” with chocolate (UCS). In each you meet (CS) with your lover then give you a chocolate lover, autonomously he will be very happy with your gift of chocolate. In theory, when it is done repeatedly, then enough to meet with you without giving chocolate, then your spouse will autonomously really like (CR) with you, this can occur due to the formation of behavior between UCS, CS, UCR, and CR like experiments conducted by Pavlov. Another example of the bell in the class for markers of time or the queue at the bank. Without realizing it, a process of marking something that distinguishes the sounds of the traders of food (salad, ice, fried rice, dumplings) are often passed in the house, bell-grade recess or after school and queuing at the bank without having to stand for long.
From these examples can be seen that by implementing the strategy Pavlov was an individual can be controlled by means of replacing natural stimulus with the right stimulus to get the desired response repetition, while individuals do not realize that he is controlled by a stimulus that comes from outside himself.
D. Application of Learning Theory in Pembelajran Pavlov
Things that must be considered in applying the theory of learning by Pavlov is a strong characteristic of the underlying are:
1. Concerned with the influence of environmental
2. Concerned with the parts
3. Concerned with the role of reaction
4. Prioritize learning outcomes through the mechanism of formation of stimulus response procedure
5. The ability concerned with the role of preconceived
6. Importance of habit formation through drills and repetition
7. Learning outcomes are achieved is the emergence of the desired behavior.
As a consequence of this theory, teachers are using a Pavlovian paradigm will develop learning materials in a form that is ready, so that the learning objectives that must be mastered students delivered in full by the teacher. Teachers do not much give a talk, but short instruction yng followed the examples by themselves or through simulation. Learning materials are arranged in a hierarchy from simple to the complex.
Learning goals are divided into small sections that are marked by the achievement of a particular skill. Outcome-based learning can be measured and observed. Mistakes must be corrected immediately. Repetition and practice are used so that the desired behavior can become a habit. The expected results from the application of Pavlov’s theory of learning is tebentuknya a desired behavior. Desired behavior gets positive reinforcement and behavior that is not appropriate negatif.Evaluasi awarded or judgments based on behavior that appears.
criticism of Pavlov’s theory of learning is student-centered learning teachers, bersifaat mechanistic, results-oriented and only can be observed and measured. This criticism is unfounded because the use of Pavlov’s theory has certain requirements in accordance with the characteristics of the dimunculkannya. Not every subject can use this method, so that the foresight and sensitivity to the situation of teachers and learning conditions are very important to apply the conditions Behavioristic.
Pavlov method is very suitable for the acquisition of skills that require practice and conditioning that contain elements such as: speed, spontaneity, flexibility, reflexes, endurance and so on, for example: conversational foreign language, typing, dancing, using the computer, swimming, sports and so on. This theory is also suitable to be applied to train the children who still need a dominance of adult roles, like repeated and should be socialized, imitative and fun with other forms of direct rewards such as candy or praise given.
Application of learning theories of Pavlov’s wrong in a learning situation also resulted in the learning process that is very unpleasant for the student teachers as central, authoritarian, one-way communication takes place, train teachers and to determine what students should learn. Student is considered passive, need motivation from the outside, and is strongly influenced by the strengthening of the teacher. Pupils only listen to and memorize the order of the teacher’s explanations of what is heard and seen as an effective way of learning.
The downside of this is conditioning theory, this theory mengangaap that learning occurs only secarab automatic, active and personal determination in disregard. The role of exercise or habit overstated. While we do not know that in the act and do something humans are not solely dependent on external influences. Me or her own personal role in selecting and determining the actions and reactions of what it will do. Conditioning theory is indeed correct that we associate with living animals. In humans this theory we can only receive in a particular learning things. For example in the learning of skills (dexterity, dexterity) and certain of habituation in young children.
From the above description, it can be concluded that:
1. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) was a famous Behavioristic theory of associative stimulus-response conditioning.
2. ConditioningPavlov In theory, learning is a process of change that occurs because of the terms (conditions), which led to the reaction (response).
3. Experiments Pavlov: dogs, when given a food (UCS) is an autonomous dog will salivate (the UCR). If the dog was rung a bell so he does not respond or issue a liur.Sehingga water in this experiment is given a dog food (UCS) after given the bell (CS) in advance, so the dog would salivate (the UCR) due to feeding. Once treatment is done repeatedly, then when the dog heard the bell (CS) without being offered food, the dog will autonomously provide a response drooling from his mouth (CR).
4. Application of the theory of Pavlov in the teacher learning is not much give a talk, but short instruction yng followed the examples by themselves or through simulation. Learning materials are arranged in a hierarchy from simple to the complex.
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